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The Most Basic Function Of The Router

Shenzhen Hongdian Corporation | Updated: Oct 30, 2017

A router is a network device that connects multiple networks or network segments that can "translate" data between different networks or segments so that they can "read" the data from each other, thus constituting a more Large network.

The router has two typical functions, namely data channel function and control function. Data channel functions include forwarding decisions, forwarding, Router and output data link scheduling. It is usually done by hardware. The control functions are generally implemented in software, including information exchange with neighboring routers, system configuration, and system management. In the case of

Introduction to the basic functions of the router

Traditionally, the router works in Layer 3 of the so-called Layer 7 protocol. The main task is to receive packets from a network interface. Depending on the destination address contained therein, Router it is determined which destination to forward, possibly the router. May be the ultimate destination, and decide which network interface to forward out. This is the most basic function of the router - packet forwarding function.

According to the TCP / IP protocol, the router's packet forwarding process is:

1. The network interface receives different physical network media of the packet, which determines the different network interface, such as 10Base-T Ethernet, Router the router has 10Base-T Ethernet interface; corresponding to DDN, the router has V.35 interface.

2. According to the network physical interface, the router calls the corresponding link layer to explain the link layer protocol in the processing data. This step is mainly to verify the integrity of the data. search for

3. After the link layer completes the integrity verification of the data frame, the router starts processing the IP layer of the data frame. According to the destination IP address in the data frame, Router the router looks up the next IP address in the routing table and calculates the new checksum. If the network interface type of the received data frame is different from the network interface type of the forwarding data frame, the IP packet may also be segmented or reassembled due to the limitation of the maximum frame length.

4. According to the routing address found in the next IP address, Router IP packets sent to the corresponding output link layer, and finally sent out through the network physical output interface.

In order to maintain and use the router, the router also needs to have configuration or control functions.

Control functions are provided by a set of rules, for example, may be priority, deny access or provide billing data. When the packet into the router, these related rules also act on the data packet. Router In software-based routers, these rules are stored in a software database, each packet must be checked with the database.

The main job of the router is to find an optimal transmission path for each data frame that passes through the router and to transfer the data effectively to the destination site. Thus, the choice of the best path of the strategy that routing algorithm is the key to the router. In order to complete this work, in the router to store a variety of transmission path of the relevant data - routing table (Routing Table), for routing use. Router The path table holds the log information of the subnet, the number of online routers, and the name of the next router. Path table can be set by the system administrator fixed, can also be dynamically modified by the system can be automatically adjusted by the router can also be controlled by the host.

1. Static path table by the system administrator in advance to set a fixed path table called static (static) path table, usually in the system installation according to the network configuration pre-set, Router it will not change with the future network structure And change.

2. Dynamic path table

Dynamic The path table is a path table that the router automatically adjusts to the network system's operating conditions. The router automatically learns and memorizes the network operation according to the functions provided by the routing protocol, and automatically calculates the best route for data transmission when needed.


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